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Monday, June 25, 2012

:: Membaca Bismillah Sebelum al-Fatihah Kuat Atau Perlahan? ::


Oleh : Ustaz Zaharuddin Abd. Rahman
Sumber : Petikan Formula Solat Sempurna

1) Membaca Secara Perlahan.

Merupakan amalan sahabat Nabi s.a.w antaranya Abu Bakar, Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, Ibn Zubair, Ammar dan ijtihad ulama seperti Imam Abu Hanifah dan Ahmad. (Al-Mughni, jld.2, hlm. 27)

Anas berkata :"Aku solat bersama Rasulullah s.a.w dan Sayidina Abu Bakar, Sayidina Umar dan Saiyidina Uthman dan tidak kudengari seorang pun antara mereka yang membaca Basmalah (dengan kuat)." (Riwayat Muslim)

2) Membaca Secara Lantang (jahr).

Imam al-Syafi'i, Said Ibn Jubair, Ata' Bin Abi Rabah dan Mujahid berpandangan: Ijtihad mereka didasari oleh riwayat yang menunjukkan Nabi s.a.w menguatkan basmalah.

Ini bertepatan dengan hadis Rasulullah yang bermaksud ; "Apa-apa yang diperdengarkan oleh Rasulullah s.a.w maka kami akan memperdengarkannya kepadamu (dengan menguatkan bacaan) dan apa-apa yang Baginda perlahankan, kami turut memperlahankannya." (Riwayat al-Bukhari)

3) Tidak Perlu Sebut.

Ia pandangan Imam Malik dan hanya sunat dibaca ketika solat sunat. Manakala hadis-hadis berkenaan membacanya secara kuat, sekali lagi diperdebatkan oleh para ulama. Terdapat juga hadis yang melemahkan keseluruhannya.

Namun Ibn Hajar membawakan hadis berikut sebagai salah satu pegangan dalam mazhab Syafi'i : "Sekumpulan sahabat membaca Basmalah secara kuat ; iaitu Umar al-Khattab." (Musannaf Ibn Abi Syaibah, jil.1, hlm. 362  no.4156) Ibn Zubair, Mu'awiyah dan lain-lain. Namun masih terdapat komentar kerana telah sabit juga mereka tidak membaca basmalah secara jahr, antaranya hadis sahih di atas.

Kesimpulan

Diharuskan membaca basmalah secara jahr semasa solat jahr terutamanya apabila diyakini ijtihad yang menganggap masalah basmalah adalah salah satu daripada surah al-Fatihah. Dalam hadis yang bermaksud ; "Apabila kamu membaca al-Fatihah, maka bacalah basmalah kerana sesungguhnya ia Ummul Quran dan tujuh pujian yang diulang-ulang dan basmalah adalah salah satu daripada ayatnya." (Riwayat al-Daraqutni)

Dalam hadis lain yang bermaksud, daripada Nu'aim Ibn al-Mujmir berkata : " Aku solat di belakang Abu Hurairah r.a maka beliau membaca basmalah dan kemudian membaca al-Fatihah sehingga akhir, lalu Abu Hirairah berkata; 'Demi nyawaku di tangan Allah, sesungguhnya solatku, adalah yang paling hampir kepada Rasulullah s.a.w."

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